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Knit directory: toolbox/

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Rmd 11e1444 Kozyreva 2024-05-14 minor pub update
html 11e1444 Kozyreva 2024-05-14 minor pub update
Rmd 2d3842d Kozyreva 2024-05-14 no message
html 2d3842d Kozyreva 2024-05-14 no message
Rmd 5f1334a Anastasia Kozyreva 2024-05-13 Update index.Rmd
html c5033f2 Kozyreva 2024-05-13 Build site.
Rmd 466dd67 Kozyreva 2024-05-13 publication update
html 466dd67 Kozyreva 2024-05-13 publication update
html e7e6f57 Kozyreva 2024-04-24 Build site.
Rmd 8892615 Kozyreva 2024-04-24 small update to the title and evidence table
html 8892615 Kozyreva 2024-04-24 small update to the title and evidence table
html 5bae2a2 Kozyreva 2024-02-20 Build site.
Rmd 1a1a155 Kozyreva 2023-11-30 minor updates
html 1a1a155 Kozyreva 2023-11-30 minor updates
Rmd 920cc75 Kozyreva 2023-11-29 index page update
html 920cc75 Kozyreva 2023-11-29 index page update
Rmd 5be9264 Kozyreva 2023-11-24 what should be the final version of the toolbox 2.0
html 5be9264 Kozyreva 2023-11-24 what should be the final version of the toolbox 2.0
html 22a40df Kozyreva 2023-10-24 v2 updates
html 663ae9c Kozyreva 2023-10-24 Build site.
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Rmd c2b8b90 Kozyreva 2023-10-12 v2 branch update
html c2b8b90 Kozyreva 2023-10-12 v2 branch update
html 168d4c7 Kozyreva 2023-02-28 Build site.
html 8c38442 Anastasia Kozyreva 2023-01-05 Build site.
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This is an online supplement for the review paper “Toolbox of Individual-Level Interventions Against Online Misinformation” published in Nature Human Behaviour.

Coordinating authors: Anastasia Kozyreva1, Philipp Lorenz-Spreen 1, Stefan Herzog1, Ullrich Ecker2, Stephan Lewandowsky3,4, and Ralph Hertwig 1

Contributing authors: Ayesha Ali5, Joe Bak-Coleman6, Sarit Barzilai7, Melisa Basol8, Adam J. Berinsky9, Cornelia Betsch10,11, John Cook12, Lisa K. Fazio13, Michael Geers1,14, Andrew M. Guess15, Huang Haifeng16, Horacio Larreguy17, Rakoen Maertens8, Folco Panizza18, Gordon Pennycook19, David J. Rand9, Steve Rathje20, Jason Reifler21, Philipp Schmid10,11,22, Mark Smith23, Briony Swire-Thomson24, Paula Szewach21,25, Sander van der Linden8, Sam Wineburg23.

1Center for Adaptive Rationality, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany. 2School of Psychological Science, University of Western Australia. 3School of Psychological Science, University of Bristol, England. 4University of Potsdam, Germany. 5Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan. 6Craig Newmark Center, School of Journalism, Columbia University. 7University of Haifa, Israel. 8University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. 9Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States. 10University of Erfurt, Germany. 11Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Germany. 12Climate Change Communication Research Hub, Monash University, Australia. 13Vanderbilt University, United States. 14Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany. 15Princeton University, United States. 16Ohio State University, United States. 17Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México, Mexico. 18IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Italy. 19University of Regina, Canada. 20New York University, United States. 21University of Exeter, United Kingdom. 22Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 23Stanford University, United States. 24Northeastern University, United States. 25University of Essex, United Kingdom.

Research assistance: Spela Vrtovec, Friederike Stock, Alexandra Horsley.

Editorial assistance: Deb Ain.

Abstract: The spread of misinformation through media and social networks threatens many aspects of society, including public health and the state of democracies. Here we introduce a toolbox of individual-focused interventions aimed at reducing harm from online misinformation. Comprising an up-to-date account of the interventions featured in 81 scientific studies conducted across the globe, the toolbox is a resource for scientists, policymakers, and the public. It provides both a conceptual overview of the breadth of interventions—including their target, scope, and examples—and a summary of the empirical evidence supporting the interventions—including the methods and experimental paradigms used to test them. The toolbox covers nine categories of interventions: accuracy prompts, debunking and rebuttals, friction, inoculation, lateral reading and verification strategies, media-literacy tips, social norms, source-credibility labels, and warning and fact-checking labels.

Puplication: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-024-01881-0

Read-only free access to the article: https://rdcu.be/dH6AE

Preprint: https://psyarxiv.com/x8ejt

Last compiled on 21 May, 2024

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sessionInfo()
R version 4.3.1 (2023-06-16 ucrt)
Platform: x86_64-w64-mingw32/x64 (64-bit)
Running under: Windows 10 x64 (build 19043)

Matrix products: default


locale:
[1] LC_COLLATE=English_United States.utf8 
[2] LC_CTYPE=English_United States.utf8   
[3] LC_MONETARY=English_United States.utf8
[4] LC_NUMERIC=C                          
[5] LC_TIME=English_United States.utf8    

time zone: Europe/Berlin
tzcode source: internal

attached base packages:
[1] stats     graphics  grDevices utils     datasets  methods   base     

loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
 [1] vctrs_0.6.3       cli_3.6.1         knitr_1.43        rlang_1.1.1      
 [5] xfun_0.40         stringi_1.7.12    promises_1.2.1    jsonlite_1.8.7   
 [9] workflowr_1.7.1   glue_1.6.2        rprojroot_2.0.3   git2r_0.32.0     
[13] htmltools_0.5.6   httpuv_1.6.11     sass_0.4.7        fansi_1.0.4      
[17] rmarkdown_2.24    jquerylib_0.1.4   evaluate_0.21     tibble_3.2.1     
[21] fastmap_1.1.1     yaml_2.3.7        lifecycle_1.0.3   whisker_0.4.1    
[25] stringr_1.5.0     compiler_4.3.1    fs_1.6.3          Rcpp_1.0.11      
[29] pkgconfig_2.0.3   rstudioapi_0.15.0 later_1.3.1       digest_0.6.33    
[33] R6_2.5.1          utf8_1.2.3        pillar_1.9.0      magrittr_2.0.3   
[37] bslib_0.5.1       tools_4.3.1       cachem_1.0.8